p.1          Count Bernardo de Galvez (Spanish governor of Louisiana) then called as Isla de San Luis (Early as 1799), Called Galveston in 1833, the city was established in 1838.

1900 hurricane pushed shore line by several hundred feet
Galveston is an island of sand, 900-1500ft of sand with no bedrock.

p.10       Formed 180 million years ago of Gulf of Mexico. Houston is above 20000ft of deposit, allowing oil at gulf from Cenozoic Era about 100 million years ago.
                The soil contains salt, which means no suitable for farming.

p.10       Army base, Camp Wallace was established in 1940, before leaving at 1943, flooded twice. The Navy took over as a boot camp until the end of war in 1945.

p.14      Not suited for farming but good place to hunt. Alligator sighting in 1875, Rattlesnake bite average in 20-30 people/yr. Brown pelican (DDT caused the egg shell to be so thin and break), Turtles, Gulls, Fishes (Flounder, Redfish, Spanish Mackerel, Red Snapper, Sheepshead, Croakers,  Spackled Trout, Silverkingtarpon. Oyster business hires 500 people in 1888. Shell removal volume at 214,000,000yd^3 between 1912-1962. Others like Shrimp, Sharks, Sawfish

                Freezing reported on 1886 (up to 2.5in ice on Galveston bay), again in 1895, 1935 freeze caused thousands of cattle died over a blizzard. Then 1951, 1962.

p.25       Rain in 1950 and 1973 (5in rain to ANICO building step)
                Drought in 1857 killed thousands of cattle, 1872 and 1876. People selling water 25 cents a bucket.
                Tornado reported in 1943, 1961 and 1981.
p.26       Hurricane: Storm surge reported 25ft for Camilla, 22ft for Carla. In 1983, Hurricane Alicia passed San Luis Pass.
P.28       In 1837, only 1 home remained. In 1867, tore up deck, schooner Julia at Strand and 26th, railroad bridge left only with piles.
p.29       1875 storm cause east side submerged on 9/15.
p.30       1886 Storm caused 1-4ft of water in August. Indiananola abandoned.
p.31       1887 Seawall discussed
p.31       Record shows Nov. 1528, Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca reached. Occupied by Karankawa Tribe
p.34       1816 September 1, Aury decreare a part of Republic of Mexico
p.35       Slave Dealer Bowie
                Laffite’s House at Ave A and 14th.
                1836 $50,000 for a land for Mihel B. Menard (until 1856)
                Name changed Ave B is Strand, J is Broadway, E is Post Office

p.43       Map of Galveston made by Groesbeck in 1838. Lot went to sale at April 20, 1838. Now a city.
                1837, Tremont Hotel build
                Cotton Industries: Before Civil War, 90% of cotton shipped from Bay Area, After the war, 80% is from Houston area via Buffalo Bayou. Shipping destination, New York, New Orleans, Great Britain.
                In 1878, Galveston is accounted for 1/3 of nation, 1882, was at 3rd place. 1854, 82,000bales, 1900, 2,278,00bales, but later in industrilization

p.48 In 1890, Houston and Galveston are about the same size, in 1909, houston's manufacturing has 249 while Galveston is at 81. Shifted from manufacturing to commerce.

p.49 Chamber of commerse established in 1845, Cotton Exchange established in 1893, lead by William L. Moody. Later it joined with CoC in 1889.

 Railroad connecting with Denver, K.C.

 Railroad Sidney Sherman for Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Corolado Railway (BBB&C)

p.50  1873, Houston and Texas Central connecting with Missouri and Kansas by reaching to TX & OK border.

p.51 Galveston, Houston and Herderson (GH&H) construction to begin from 1853, opened in 1860.

 It was not conneting to Houston and beyond until 1865 because of war. (HTC?)


Houston to drege the bayyou to 12ft deep

p.52, Houston and New Orleans line opened in 1880, Clinton abandoned.

p.52 Galveston to improve railroad sstetem, deepen the harbour.

 Railroad, Henry Rosenberg, Albert Somerville.

 Gulf Colorado and SantaFe Rail Road in 1873 (GC&SF) reached Breham in 1885, Belton/Ft.Worth in 1881, Lampasas in 1882. Later taken over by ATSF in 1885.

 Elimination of the differentials in 1933

 Bridge completed in 1860, carried away in 1867, rebuild in 1868 and lasted until 1900.

p.54, 55  "Wagon bridge" made but destroyed in 1900

 Cotton industory was destoryed by the development of railroad. High density compression process moved to inland by 1920.

p.56  "Whart priviledges", The Galveston City Company

 1854, consolidation by 3 men

 1869 City and company reached agreement, 31 blocks total, High wharf fee decreased from 1874.



 1850-1855, Galveston and Brazos Navigation Company (John Sydnor, Gail Borden, Jr., Samuekl May Williams)

 Dredged west bay tio Quintana, costed $340,00. 50ft wide and 3.5 ft deep, 8 miles length., deepended to 5ft after Civil War (100ft wire, extended for 7 miles)


p.58 "Sand bar" Board of Horbor Improvement by Henry Rosenberg. $15,000 to drive piles to focus flows

 1873, 12ft deep

 costed $8,700,000 completed in 1896. Shipping up, became leading cotton port.

p.58  (Port classicication: 1st class, 26ft at low tide, 2nd class 20-26ft at low tide Tempa, Pensacola, 3rd class less than 20 ft, Mobile, Galveston, New Oreans, which became fisr class later)


p.62, nude swimming prohibited, $20 fine. (From sun rise to sunset)

 1877, No bathing between 16 and 27th st between 4:00am-10pm, else where is 6:00am-8:00pm



p66 1880の国勢調査ではTexasで一番人口の多い都市になったが1900年にはHoustonに抜かれた。

p69 1842年にThe Galveston Daily Newsが発足

p70 1838年に郵便局が開局、New OrleansからTexas内地に向けての取扱い


教会の普及。1840年にMethodists、Baptists、Prebyterian。1841年にEpiscopalians、1847年にRoman Catholic

p71 1850年 Meat Biscuit(翌年のロンドンでの国際博覧会で金賞を受賞)がGail Bordenによって発明される。

p.73 Sam Houston to speak at Tremount Hotel balcony

p.73 25% of eligible men went to consul to apply citizenship

p.73. USS South Carolina arrive in July, Lincoln brokede, causing the city to collapse. Francis Lubbock, the governer of Texas thoguht eh city to be burnt doen (later lost in mayoral election in 1875)

p.74 October 4, surrendered

p.77 Battle of Galveston

p.79 Galveston reinforced with 41 guns






p90 1881年 学校の差別化



Yellow Fever(p.93-96)

度々黄熱が発生:1839, 1844, 1847, 1853, 1854, 1858, 1859, 1864, 1866, 1867, 1870, 1873





p99 1891 Texas Medical College ”Old Red"



p100 1869年までは豚が廃棄物を処理するのが一般的だった(何でも食べるPigの語源?) 1886年に33rdとAve Aに処理場が完成。同時に下水道管の埋設許可が下りる。1893年に14th Stから27th Stまでカバーされる。


消防 1843年にHook and Ladder Company #1が結成。1973年には9隊、348名規模に。




1887年にSanta Fe鉄道が759ftまで掘る

最終的にはAlta Lomaから給水1895年






1882年にBrush Electric Companyが誕生。1889年には市立の発電所も。1891年より路面電車が





P.106 Henry Rosenberg。スイス移民で遺書で噴水を人間と獣用に作るようにと。銅像

p.108 犯罪、売春の横行。 19世紀は毎年2000-3000の逮捕者。

 売春が26-29th St.およびPostoffice, Marketの区画で盛んに。


p111治安: 1857年にマーシャルによる夜警(対黒人)。1869年に犯罪者の捜索に写真を使用


p114 スポーツ関連

1890s 自転車競技上 Velodrome P and 27th

1873, 3 mile rowing race at Galveston Channel

1875 Reggatta. - John Crotty

1894 Galveston Yacht Club, wharf to red fish channel and back

1874 Oleander park open for horse raceing

1867 Baseball team formed. Galveston Sand Crabs (vs. Houston Mud Cats)

1890 Football

Boxing legend Jack Johnson, a black boxer who won World Champion in 1908 in heavyweight class.

1900 Hurricane. p.121 p.122.

 1900/9/8 12:00pm`830pm (center), until midnight.

 15ft storm surge, (Highest on ground was 9ft) 6,000 died, 3,000 homes destroyed, $30mill loss.

p123 1871 Weather station established.

p.125 Destroyed 1/3 of city (1,500 acres)

p.126 High water mark 1875 (8.2ft), 1900 (15.7ft)

p.130 9/13, 2000 armed police, solders arrived. (Marshall law in effect, curfew imposed and saloon closed)

 Burial - dag trench but soon filled with satuated water (NG), Dropped off the coast, but came back (NG), Crimation until November, the last body was found at 1901/2/10

p.132 Train operation is back on 9/22, and martial law was cancelled.

p.138, proposal for the improvement. 3 mile of concrete wall, as well as increasing the elevation to 18ft. About $35million

p.139 Bond issued for $1.5mil. Seawall building to start on Feb 1903, initially to 53rd, in 1927, to 61st and in 1962, total of 10 miles.

p.142 Raising 2156 structures, $1.9mil with 11mil ft^3 of soil for 3 years. Completed in 1911.

p.143 500 blocks, 16.3mil yd^3 including +5ft at St. Patricks's church. Installed weather proof bridges.
Automobiles in Galveston. 1902: the first, 1909, 145, license plate required from 1908.
p.144 1st traffic signal at 23rd and seawall in 1924. The bus system running from 1936, Parking meter installed at 1939, oneway street from 1951, police use of rader from 1955.
Reconstruction of bridge was from 50% company, 25% inter urban, 25% county, meaing 2 railroad, 1 interurban, 30" watermain, 19ft road costing $13mil.
Interurban runs between 6:00am to 11:00pm, $2.00 round trip, $1.25 one way.
Galveston <-> Bayou city 1:18min, added causeway in 1935, another at 1956.
p.146 1909, 7172 deaths, $99,000 damage. 1915, 81 deaths with downtown under 5-6ft of water. Broke bridge approach, watermain, costing $4-5mil.
p.149 1961 Carla with $15-18mil damage, 9ft tide, 80mph wind
1983 Alicia $300mil damage, 12ft tide, 102mph wind
p.150 1920s Houston surpass tonnage
p.151 1905 oil discovery in bayou city, Galveston became sin city.
p.153, Spanish-American war caused solders to stay. 1000 main over 5mon at forts.
1903 Fort Crokett to be rebuild (Fort Travis at Bolivar, Fort San Jacinto)
1911 March, Galveston with 4000 soldiers
1913 7000 soldiers and 8000 in Texas City
(1917 Black servicemen riot in Houston)
1927 Airstrip at Fort Crokett
p.155 Red Light district in 1887 Market/Postoffice and 28th-29th.
 WWI, Market, Postoffice, Church, merhcnat, 26th, 27th
p.156 Prostitute ratio per pop. in 1934; Galveston 1:62, Shanghai 1:130, Tokyo 1:250 and London 1:960.
1941 Fort Crokett, Camp Wallace warned the city, so the city declared the free of commercial prostituion, then the business gone underground.
p.158 Reestablished the district after war, 1953, a part of section has beetn closed. 1955 City mayor opened. 1918 was the introduction of prohibition period. The city was legally dry
p.159. Downtown gang / Beach gang
1935 George Musey, the former leader of downtown gang was dkilled.
p.166 Isaac Kempner, George Sealy
 Issue with Galveston Company: Whartf Co, Cotton Concentration Co. Bay Cotton Bagging Co. Gulf Transfer Co. was all under.
p.167 1920 march, longshoreman's strike.
p.168 Todd shipyard in NY bought Galveston Dry Dock in 1933, then 4500 hired, took control over Gary Iron Works. Concrete ship build in 1919, returned to Galveston in 1920.
p.169 1940 City bought Wharf Company for $6.25 mil.
p.170 Rabbi Henry Cohen
p.171 ANICO- American National Insurance Company, Hotel Galvez opened in 1911 with $750,000
p.172 1923 The Galveston Daily bought by Moody.
 Buccaneer Hotel opened by Moody at 1929
p.173. 1960 moody Foundation
p.179 City mayors: Cartwright "Regulated and Open Town", Clough "Clean and Open City"
 Parties: Cotton, Splash Day
P.183 Housing Condition: 1961 -> 7% of housing was by House Authority.
 Sports: Galveston won Texas Leaguye Champingship in 1934. Folded at 1955.
p.185 Maceo Enterprise owned 80% of 1300 slot machines, @250-300 each
 Horse race was relayed over telephone, then was cut off
p.186 Will Wilson tried to close casinos. Texas rangers raided and founr 375 slot machines, 1500 at Hollywood Club, and 300 at Dickenson Werehouse.
p.188 Polulation in 1960 / 1970 / 1980
 Galveston:  67200 / 61800 / 6190
 Houston: 938200 / ? / 1594100
 Texas City: 32100 / ? / 41400
 Coca Cola plant closed at 1981 after 76 years, Santa Fe last train in 1967, Commuter airline ended at 1982.
 1946 lost bid for veteran's hospital by Houston.
 Islander East - 1975 $3mil, 250mph wind
 Pleasure Pier, planned in 1931, started afrter WWII
 UTMB (University of Texas Medical Center at Bay)
1947 Texas City explosion from Ammonum Nitrated fertilize. 539 structure loss, $200mil damage
 S.S. Grand Camp exploded, caught fire at gas tank, SS High Flyer exploded at 1:12AM?
p.195 George Mitchell - Pelican Island, Later Oil Discovery then made a real estate (The Woodlands)
 to Galveston $36mil in 1982? San Luis on Galveston Isle
p.198 Ashton Villa (Brick Mansion in Texas)
 1968 Mina Shrine Temple was saved
 1861 Customs House
 Elissa in 1961 was cigarlett summugler ship at Italy and Yogoslavia, bought back in 1975 for $40,000, towed and restored for $3.6mil and became operational at 1982.
 Todd Shipyards: Also had location in Seattle, LS, SF, Houston, New Orleans, Brroklyn. Fueling station for Nuclear ship Savannah.
p.202 Pier 19 restayrant (Mosquito Fleet).
 1970-80 Unusual # of brain cancer reported at Texas city
p.203 1942 Bought incinerater but clogged and stopped
 from? 53 it was open burning, until 68.
 Also caused water pollution. in 1970s, Galveston dumped 7mil gal to 25mil gal of sweage daily. Only 40% processed Oysters died.
1979 Burmah Agate . Mimosa incident
p.205 Errosion of sand in 1897, lost 300ft since 1838. 1909, building of extension.
p.207 LeRoy Colombo saved 907 people (Guiness Record)
p.208 Beach riot and violence. Drag (Mandray)
p.209 Drug trafficing. In 1978 and 1979, seized $250mil of marijana.
 Old red light -> Bottoms, Broadway between 25th-29th
p.210 Segregation until 1950s and 60s.
 1952 First black lawer
 1954 Negro CC and Galveston CC merged
 1958 Blacks allowed to play golf
p.213 Kelton Song and Student Sit-in
p.214 1960s First mayor election Edward Schieilba
 Property tax only come from 37%.
 1979 87cents -> 70cents/$100. limited increase to 7% (inflation 12%)






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